Er: YAG laser
Er: YAG laser is a new sort of laser in the 1980s. When the doping concentration is high, the laser can acquire a result of 2.94 μm. Since the laser has a wavelength of 2.94 um, right at the absorption peak of water, it can be strongly soaked up by water molecules. The mass fraction of water in biological cells as well as cells is typically more than 70 per cent. Consequently, a 2.94 μm laser is a suitable selection for laser biology applications.
Utilizing this band of laser can likewise prevent the damage of various other molecular bonds in the cell and also does not have huge thermal damage like CO2 laser; On top of that, the passing through the depth of erbium laser in organic cells is very superficial, as well as its mechanical and thermal damages to the body is extremely tiny. As a result, the application and also development of Er: YAG laser have been paid much focus in medical circles in the house as well as abroad in the last few years.
Er: YAG crystal
The laser system of Er: YAG is reasonably complicated however can recognize under specific conditions due to various energy transfers.
2.94 μm laser outcome. Its macro qualities are tiny one-way gain, a high threshold, as well as a challenge to attain continual results; Nonetheless, as a result of the high doping concentration, it is challenging to generate saturation so that it can acquire the laser pulse with huge power.
Er3+: YAG crystal comes from the cubic crystal system, an encouraging solid laser product in the mid-infrared band, which can output laser of 3 wavelengths at room temperature level: 1.64 μm, 1.78 μm and 2.94 μm, amongst which 1.64 μm, as well as 1.78 μm, remain in the secure band of human eyes, 2.94 μm is in the hydroxyl absorption optimal and can be strongly absorbed by organic cells, so it has a great application possibility in laser medication, laser interaction, laser range dimension, etc application.
The resulting wavelength of Er: YAG laser is 2.94 μm, which is precisely regular with the optimal of the water absorption range, and the absorption coefficient is 13000cm-1, which is the highest possible amongst existing medical lasers. It is a type of laser easily taken in by water molecules and can attain an excellent effect with small energy. The optical penetration depth representing the absorption coefficient is 1μm; compared to other clinical lasers, the infiltration depth is extremely superficial. This benefit is unparalleled to various other wavelengths and can be made use of to carry out precise cutting as well as soft cells excision surgical treatment. As a result, it is appropriate for accuracy in clinical areas such as ophthalmology as well as capillary.
Er: YAG laser in cosmetic surgery, bone as well as tooth cutting and other applications have attracted much focus.
Furthermore, Er: YAG laser is a very safe and sensible laser source for clinical usage since the damage to water-bearing cells is mechanical damage triggered by water evaporation, which does not leave shed scars, nor does it have the prospective danger of genetics mutation triggered by damage to cell DNA comparable to the excimer laser.
Over the last few years, the application of erbium-doped YAG laser in the medical field has been paid more and more attention. With the maturation of Q-switching innovation, the difficulty of Q-switching of Er: YAG laser has actually been overcome, as well as the modulated 2.94 μm Er: YAG laser, the pulse size is significantly reduced, the peak power is additionally raised, which further minimizes the mechanical damages to the irradiated item surface area, and also the thermal damages is practically zero. The edge of the pulse trauma point is smooth, which is extremely suitable for numerous accurate clinical fields.
Among all kinds of wavelength lasers, Er: YAG laser in the mid-infrared band has a wavelength of 2940nm, which takes place to be near the top of the water absorption contour and also the second optimal of the hydroxyapatite absorption contour. It is simple to be absorbed by water as well as hydroxyapatite, and also especially simple to be absorbed by water to produce high energy. Consequently, it can act upon soft as well as tough cells with various water contents to generate cutting, ablating and grinding impacts as well as kill all types of microorganisms in the tissues at the same time.
Therefore, it is a multi-functional laser widely utilized in different scientific subspecialties of the oral cavity. Furthermore, Er: YAG laser has the shallowest tissue penetration deepness, only 2μm in soft tissue, 5μm in enamel and 7μm in dentin, which has the advantages of precise therapy and very little cells damages in scientific application. At the same time, the water cooling layout makes the temperature level surge triggered by Er: YAG laser irradiation of soft and also tough tissue surface area no more than 5 ℃, virtually no thermal damages, so the cells response after therapy is mild, quick healing, really suitable for oral minimally invasive therapy.
The 2.94 μm laser focus connects with water-saturated biological tissue. It is equivalent to immediate heating of a finite quantity in which the stress boosts as well as material (such as blood) flows out of the laceration without clotting, a bent some surgeries. Yet it was this quality that caused the development of the laser blood sampler. The result is good. The pain is smaller sized than in acupuncture blood collection. The wound area is smaller, the recovery is fast, no infection.